مرور روایتی بر اصول کلی ارزیابی وضعیت تغذیه در بیماران بزرگسال بستری در بیمارستان

نوع مقاله: مروری

نویسندگان

1 گروه تغذیه، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 کمیته تحقیقات دانشجویی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: سوءتغذیه بیمارستانی که شیوع جهانی آن بین 22تا 50درصد است، شامل طیف وسیعی از کمبودهای مواد مغذی و افزایش و کاهش وزن میباشد. در این ارتباط، مطالعه حاضر با هدف معرفی انواع روش های ارزیابی وضعیت تغذیه ای در بیماران بستری در بیمارستان انجام شد.
مواد و روشها: مطالعه مروری حاضر با استفاده از کلمات کلیدی ""Nutrition ،"Malnutrition" ،"Under-Nutrition
" "Survey"
،Examinationو " "Nutritional Assessmentو نیز کلیدواژه های فارسی"سوءتغذیه"، "کمبود تغذیه ای"، "ارزیابی وضعیت تغذیه"، "بررسی تغذیه ای" و "معاینه تغذیهای" به دو زبان فارسی و انگلیسی با متن کامل که طی سالهای 1371تا 1397سالهای 1990تا 2018میلادی انجام شده بودند، با جستجو در پایگاه های اطلاعاتی Science ،Google Scholar،PubMedوIranmedex ،MedscapeوSID ،Scopus ،Direct انجام شد
یافته ها: در این پژوهش 21مقاله از 415مقاله در مورد چگونگی ارزیابی وضعیت تغذیه در ارتباط با بیماران بستری در بیمارستان بررسی شدند. نتایج گویای آن بودند که لزوم ارزیابی دقیق وضعیت تغذیه ای با ابزارهای مربوطه برای پیشگیری از بروز سوءتغذیه و عوارض آن در بیماران بستری در بیمارستان از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار میباشد.
نتیجه گیری: نتایج نشان دادند که ارزیابی تغذیهای باید جامع بوده و شامل: تاریخچه تغذیه ای، بررسی تداخلات غذا- دارو و استفاده از پرسشنامه های مربوط به اطلاعات تغذیه ای باشد. عدم وجود یک مقیاس بالینی یا آزمایشگاهی واحد به این معنا است که میبایست اطلاعات را از انواع مختلف منابع شامل: تاریخچه، معاینه فیزیکی، انتروپومتریک، مصرف غذایی و میانگین های بیوشیمیایی جمع آوری نموده و از آنها استفاده کنیم.

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