مروری بر مداخلات آموزشی پیشگیرانه از اچ آی وی/ ایدز در ایران

نوع مقاله: مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای تخصصی بهداشت باروری، کمیته تحقیقات دانشجویی، دانشکده پرستاری مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکترای تخصصی بهداشت‌باروری، کمیته تحقیقات دانشجویی،دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکترای تخصصی بهداشت باروری، گروه مامایی، واحد مشهد،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران

4 دانشکده پزشکی، گروه زنان و زایمان، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد

5 دانشیار، گروه مامایی و بهداشت باروری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: سازمان جهانی بهداشت اساسی ترین راهکارهای مقابله با مشکلات رفتاری را ارتقای سطح آگاهی های عمومی در خصوص ماهیت رفتارهای پرخطر و مشکلات ناشی از آن، راههای انتقال و پیشگیری از آن می داند. هدف از مطالعه مروری حاضر بررسی مداخلات آموزشی پیشگیرانه از اچ آی وی/ ایدز در ایران می باشد.
روش بررسی: در این مطالعه مرور سیستماتیک مقالات فارسی و انگلیسی مناسب و مرتبط با ﺟﺴــﺘﺠﻮ در ﭘﺎﯾﮕــﺎه ﻫــﺎی اﻃﻼﻋــﺎﺗﯽ Google scholar،Scopus ،Cochrane،PubMed و ISIو پایگاه های فارسی SID و Magiran با استفاده از ﮐﻠﯿــﺪ واژه ﻫــﺎی فارسی شامل آموزش، آموزش بهداشت، مداخله، ایدز/ اچ آی وی، آگاهی، نگرش، تئوری رفتاری و معادل انگلیسی از سال 1395-1382 گردآوری شدند. در اﻧﺘﻬﺎی ﺟﺴــﺘﺠﻮ 130 مقاله بدست آمد. ﭘﺲ از حذف تکرار و ﻏﺮﺑﺎﻟﮕﺮی ﻋﻨﻮان، ﭼﮑﯿﺪه و متن اصلی 95 ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺧﺎرج و 35 ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ وارد مطالعه شدند.
یافته‌ها: در اﯾﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﻻت ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ ﺑﻪ دو دﺳﺘﻪ ﻋﻤﺪه ﺗﻘﺴﯿﻢ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ: 1- ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺗﺌﻮری ﻫﺎ و ﻣﺪل ﻫﺎی آﻣﻮزش ﺑﻬﺪاﺷﺖ ﻣﺒﻨﺎی ﻣﺪاﺧﻠﻪ آﻣﻮزﺷﯽ در آن ﻫﺎ ﺑﻮد که تعداد آنها 15 مطالعه (42/9 درصد)2- مطالعاتی که ﻣﺪاﺧﻼت آﻣﻮزﺷﯽ آن ﻫﺎ ﺑﺪون اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﺗﺌﻮری ﻫﺎ و ﻣﺪل ﻫﺎی آﻣﻮزش ﺑﻬﺪاﺷﺖ اﻧﺠﺎم شده است که تعداد آنها 20 مطالعه (57/1 درصد)بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: ﻣﺪاﺧﻼت ارﺗﻘﺎ ﺳﻼﻣﺖ در مطالعات انجام شده بر فاکتورهای مورد بررسی تاثیر مثبت داشته است. توصیه می گردد که در طراحی مداخلات آموزشی مفاهیم استیگما نسبت به بیماران جهت تاثیرگذاری و بهبود نگرش و باورهای رفتاری افراد جامعه نسبت به اچ آی وی/ایدز گنجانده شود.

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